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Concussion

Brain injury - concussion; Traumatic brain injury - concussion; Closed head injury - concussion

A concussion may occur when the head hits an object, or a moving object strikes the head. A concussion is a minor or less severe type of brain injury, which may also be called a traumatic brain injury.

A concussion can affect how the brain works for a while. It may lead to headaches, changes in alertness, or loss of consciousness.

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Causes

A concussion can result from a fall, sports activities, or car accidents. A big movement of the brain (called jarring) in any direction can cause a person to lose alertness (become unconscious). How long the person stays unconscious may be a sign of how bad the concussion is.

Concussions do not always lead to loss of consciousness. Most people never pass out. They may describe seeing all white, all black, or stars. A person can also have a concussion and not realize it.

Symptoms

Symptoms of a milder concussion can include:

The following are emergency symptoms of a more severe head injury or concussion. Seek medical care right away if there are:

Head injuries that cause a concussion often occur with injury to the neck and spine. Take special care when moving people who have had a head injury.

Exams and Tests

The health care provider will perform a physical exam. The person's nervous system will be checked. There may be changes in the person's pupil size, thinking ability, coordination, and reflexes.

Tests that may be done include:

Treatment

For a mild head injury, no treatment may be needed. But be aware that the symptoms of a head injury can show up later.

Your providers will explain what to expect, how to manage any headaches, how to treat your other symptoms, when to return to sports, school, work, and other activities, and signs or symptoms to worry about.

Both adults and children must follow the provider's instructions about when it will be possible to return to sports.

You will likely need to stay in the hospital if:

Outlook (Prognosis)

Healing or recovering from a concussion takes time. It may take days to weeks, or even months. During that time you may:

These problems will probably recover slowly. You may want to get help from family or friends for making important decisions.

In a small number of people, symptoms of the concussion do not go away. The risk for these long-term changes in the brain is higher after more than one concussion.

Seizures may occur after more severe head injuries. You or your child may need to take anti-seizure medicines for a period of time.

More severe traumatic brain injuries may result in many brain and nervous system problems.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call the provider if:

Call right away if the following symptoms occur:

If symptoms do not go away or are not improving a lot after 2 or 3 weeks, talk to your provider.

Prevention

Not all head injuries can be prevented. Increase safety for you and your child by following these steps:

Do not drink and drive. Do not allow yourself to be driven by someone who may have been drinking alcohol or is otherwise impaired.

Related Information

Unconsciousness - first aid
Head injury - first aid
Confusion
Decreased alertness
Concussion in adults - what to ask your doctor
Concussion in children - what to ask your doctor
Concussion in children - discharge
Concussion in adults - discharge
Preventing head injuries in children

References

Kerr HA. Closed head injury. Clin Sports Med. 2013;32(2):273-287. PMID: 23522509 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 23522509.

Krach LE. Severe traumatic brain injury. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 710.

Liebig CW, Congeni JA. Sports-related traumatic brain injury (concussion). In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 688.

Papa L, Goldberg SA. Head trauma. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 34.

Rossetti HC, Barth JT, Borshek DK, Freeman JR. Concussion and brain injury. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine: Principles and Practice. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 125.

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Review Date: 10/16/2017  

Reviewed By: Jesse Borke, MD, FACEP, FAAEM, Attending Physician at FDR Medical Services/Millard Fillmore Suburban Hospital, Buffalo, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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