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Ovarian cancer

Cancer - ovaries

Ovarian cancer is cancer that starts in the ovaries. The ovaries are the female reproductive organs that produce eggs.

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Female reproductive anatomy
Ascites with ovarian cancer - CT scan
Peritoneal and ovarian cancer, CT scan
Ovarian cancer dangers
Ovarian growth worries
Uterus
Ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer metastasis

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Causes

Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer among women. It causes more deaths than any other type of female reproductive organ cancer.

The cause of ovarian cancer is unknown.

Risks of developing ovarian cancer include any of the following:

Symptoms

Ovarian cancer symptoms are often vague. Women and their doctors often blame the symptoms on other, more common conditions. By the time the cancer is diagnosed, the tumor has often spread beyond the ovaries.

See your doctor if you have the following symptoms on a daily basis for more than a few weeks:

Other symptoms that can occur:

Exams and Tests

A physical exam is often normal. With advanced ovarian cancer, the doctor may find a swollen abdomen often due to accumulation of fluid (ascites).

A pelvic examination may reveal an ovarian or abdominal mass.

A CA-125 blood test is not considered a good screening test for ovarian cancer. But, it may be done if a woman has:

Other tests that may be done include:

Surgery, such as a pelvic laparoscopy or exploratory laparotomy, is often done to find the cause of symptoms. A biopsy will be done to help make the diagnosis.

No lab or imaging test has ever been shown to be able to successfully screen for or diagnose ovarian cancer in its early stages, so no standard screening tests are recommended at this time.

Treatment

Surgery is used to treat all stages of ovarian cancer. For early stages, surgery may be the only treatment. Surgery may involve removing both ovaries and fallopian tubes, the uterus, or other structures in the belly or pelvis.

Chemotherapy is used after surgery to treat any cancer that remains. Chemotherapy can also be used if the cancer comes back (relapses). Chemotherapy can be given intravenously (through an IV). It can also be injected directly into the abdominal cavity (intraperitoneal, or IP).

Radiation therapy is rarely used to treat ovarian cancer in the United States.

After surgery and chemotherapy, follow instructions about how often you should see your doctor and the tests you should have.

Support Groups

You can ease the stress of illness by joining a cancer support group. Sharing with others who have common experiences and problems can help you not feel alone.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Ovarian cancer is rarely diagnosed in its early stages. It is usually quite advanced by the time diagnosis is made:

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Contact your health care provider if you are a woman 40 years or older who has not recently had a pelvic exam. Routine pelvic exams are recommended for all women 20 years or older.

Call for an appointment with your provider if you have symptoms of ovarian cancer.

Prevention

There are no standard recommendations for screening for ovarian cancer. Pelvic ultrasound or a blood test, such as CA-125, has not been found to be effective and is not recommended.

BRCA1 or BRCA2 genetic testing may be recommended for women at high risk for ovarian cancer. These are women who have a personal or family history of breast or ovarian cancer.

Removing the ovaries and fallopian tubes in women who have a proven mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene may reduce the risk of developing ovarian cancer. But, ovarian cancer may still develop in other areas of the pelvis.

Related Information

Tumor
Cancer
Chemotherapy - what to ask your doctor
Abdominal radiation - discharge
Pelvic radiation - discharge

References

Coleman RL, Ramirez PT, Gershenson DM. Neoplastic diseases of the ovary: screening, benign and malignant epithelial and germ cell neoplasms, sex-cord stromal tumors. In: Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Lentz GM, Valea FA, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 33.

Morgan M, Boyd J, Drapkin R, Seiden MV. Cancers arising in the ovary. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 89.

National Cancer Institute website. BRCA mutations: cancer risk and genetic testing. www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/genetics/brca-fact-sheet. Updated January 30, 2018. Accessed November 12, 2018.

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Review Date: 10/18/2018  

Reviewed By: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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