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Bleeding disorders

Coagulopathy

Bleeding disorders are a group of conditions in which there is a problem with the body's blood clotting process. These disorders can lead to heavy and prolonged bleeding after an injury. Bleeding can also begin on its own.

Specific bleeding disorders include:

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Blood clotting

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Causes

Normal blood clotting involves blood components, called platelets, and as many as 20 different plasma proteins. These are known as blood clotting or coagulation factors. These factors interact with other chemicals to form a substance that stops bleeding called fibrin.

Problems can occur when certain factors are low or missing. Bleeding problems can range from mild to severe.

Some bleeding disorders are present at birth and are passed down through families (inherited). Others develop from:

Bleeding disorders can also result from a problem with the number or function of the blood cells that promote blood clotting (platelets). These disorders can also be either inherited or develop later (acquired). The side effects of certain drugs often lead to the acquired forms.

Symptoms

Symptoms may include any of the following:

The problems that occur depend on the specific bleeding disorder, and how severe it is.

Exams and Tests

Tests that may be done include:

Treatment

Treatment depends on the type of disorder. It may include:

Support Groups

Find out more about bleeding disorders through these groups:

Outlook (Prognosis)

Outcome also depends on the disorder. Most primary bleeding disorders can be managed. When the disorder is due to diseases, such as DIC, the outcome will depend on how well the underlying disease can be treated.

Possible Complications

Complications may include:

Other complications can occur, depending on the disorder.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider if you notice any unusual or severe bleeding.

Prevention

Prevention depends on the specific disorder.

Related Information

Vitamin K
Liver disease

References

Gailani D, Wheeler AP, Neff AT. Rare coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 137.

Hall JE. Hemostasis and blood coagulation. In: Hall JE, ed. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 37.

Nichols WL. Von Willebrand disease and hemorrhagic abnormalities of platelet and vascular function. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 173.

Ragni MV. Hemorrhagic disorders: coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 174.

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Review Date: 1/29/2019  

Reviewed By: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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