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Sickle cell test

Sickledex; Hgb S test

The sickle cell test looks for the abnormal hemoglobin in the blood that causes the disorder sickle cell disease.

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Red blood cells, sickle cell
Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells
Red blood cells, sickle cells
Red blood cells, sickle and Pappenheimer

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How the Test is Performed

A blood sample is needed.

How the Test will Feel

When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a bruise. This soon goes away.

Why the Test is Performed

This test is done to tell if a person has abnormal hemoglobin that causes sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen.

In sickle cell disease, a person has two abnormal hemoglobin S genes. A person with sickle cell trait has only one of these abnormal genes and no symptoms, or only mild ones.

This test does not tell the difference between these two conditions. Another test, called hemoglobin electrophoresis, will be done to tell which condition someone has.

Normal Results

A normal test result is called a negative result.

Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your health care provider about the meaning of your specific test results.

What Abnormal Results Mean

An abnormal test result indicates the person might have one of these:

Iron deficiency or blood transfusions within the past 3 months can cause a false negative result. This means the person might have the abnormal hemoglobin for sickle cell, but these other factors are making their test results appear negative (normal).

Risks

There is little risk involved with having your blood taken. Veins and arteries vary in size from one person to another, and from one side of the body to the other. Obtaining a blood sample from some people may be more difficult than from others.

Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight, but may include:

Related Information

Sickle cell disease
Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin electrophoresis
Peripheral

References

Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Sickle cell test - blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:1014.

Saunthararajah Y, Vichinsky EP. Sickle cell disease: clinical features and management. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 42.

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Review Date: 1/19/2018  

Reviewed By: Richard LoCicero, MD, private practice specializing in hematology and medical oncology, Longsteet Cancer Center, Gainesville, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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