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Pulmonary function tests

PFTs; Spirometry; Spirogram; Lung function tests

Pulmonary function tests are a group of tests that measure breathing and how well the lungs are functioning.

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Spirometry
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How the Test is Performed

Spirometry measures airflow. By measuring how much air you exhale, and how quickly you exhale, spirometry can evaluate a broad range of lung diseases. In a spirometry test, while you are sitting, you breathe into a mouthpiece that is connected to an instrument called a spirometer. The spirometer records the amount and the rate of air that you breathe in and out over a period of time. When standing, some numbers might be slightly different.

For some of the test measurements, you can breathe normally and quietly. Other tests require forced inhalation or exhalation after a deep breath. Sometimes, you will be asked to inhale a different gas or a medicine to see how it changes your test results.

Lung volume measurement can be done in two ways:

To measure diffusion capacity, you breathe a harmless gas, called a tracer gas, for a very short time, often for only one breath. The concentration of the gas in the air you breathe out is measured. The difference in the amount of gas inhaled and exhaled measures how effectively gas travels from the lungs into the blood. This test allows the health care provider to estimate how well the lungs move oxygen from the air into the bloodstream.

How to Prepare for the Test

Do not eat a heavy meal before the test. Do not smoke for 4 to 6 hours before the test. You will get specific instructions if you need to stop using bronchodilators or other inhaled medicines. You may have to breathe in medicine before or during the test.

How the Test will Feel

Since the test involves some forced breathing and rapid breathing, you may have some temporary shortness of breath or lightheadedness. You also might have some coughing. You breathe through a tight-fitting mouthpiece and you will have nose clips. If you are claustrophobic, the part of the test in the booth may feel uncomfortable.

Follow instructions for using the mouthpiece of the spirometer. A poor seal around the mouthpiece may cause results that aren't accurate.

Why the Test is Performed

Pulmonary function tests are done to:

Normal Results

Normal values are based on your age, height, ethnicity, and gender. Normal results are expressed as a percentage. A value is usually considered abnormal if it is approximately less than 80% of your predicted value.

Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories, based on slightly different ways to determine normal values. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.

Different measurements that may be found on your report after pulmonary function tests include:

What Abnormal Results Mean

Abnormal results usually mean that you may have chest or lung disease.

Some lung diseases (such as emphysema, asthma, chronic bronchitis, and infections) can make the lungs contain too much air and take longer to empty. These lung diseases are called obstructive lung disorders.

Other lung diseases make the lungs scarred and smaller so that they contain too little air and are poor at transferring oxygen into the blood. Examples of these types of illnesses include:

Muscular weakness can also cause abnormal test results, even if the lungs are normal, that is similar to the diseases that cause smaller lungs.

Risks

There is a small risk of collapsed lung (pneumothorax) in people with a certain type of lung disease. The test should not be given to a person who has experienced a recent heart attack, has certain other types of heart disease, or has had a recent collapsed lung.

Related Information

Asthma
Acute bronchitis
Breathing difficulty

References

Gold WM, Koth LL. Pulmonary function testing. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 25.

Putnam JB. Lung, chest wall, pleura, and mediastinum. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: The Biological Basis of Modern Surgical Practice. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 57.

Scanlon PD. Respiratory function: mechanisms and testing. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 85.

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Review Date: 10/23/2017  

Reviewed By: Denis Hadjiliadis, MD, MHS, Paul F. Harron, Jr. Associate Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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