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Sigmoidoscopy

Flexible sigmoidoscopy; Sigmoidoscopy - flexible; Proctoscopy; Proctosigmoidoscopy; Rigid sigmoidoscopy; Colon cancer sigmoidoscopy; Colorectal sigmoidoscopy; Rectal sigmoidoscopy; Gastrointestinal bleeding - sigmoidoscopy; Rectal bleeding - sigmoidoscopy; Melena - sigmoidoscopy; Blood in stool - sigmoidoscopy; Polyps - sigmoidoscopy

Sigmoidoscopy is a procedure used to see inside the sigmoid colon and rectum. The sigmoid colon is the area of the large intestine nearest to the rectum.

Images

Colonoscopy
Sigmoid colon cancer - X-ray
Rectal biopsy

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How the Test is Performed

During the test:

Sigmoidoscopy using a rigid scope may be done to treat problems of the anus or rectum.

How to Prepare for the Test

Your health care provider will tell you how to prepare for the exam. You will use an enema to empty your bowels. This is usually done 1 hour before the sigmoidoscopy. Often, a second enema may be recommended. Or, your provider may recommend a liquid laxative the night before.

On the morning of the procedure, you may be asked to fast with the exception of certain medicines. Be sure to discuss this with your provider well in advance. Sometimes, you are asked to follow a clear liquid diet the day before, and sometimes a regular diet is allowed. Again, discuss this with your provider well in advance of your test date.

How the Test will Feel

During the exam you may feel:

After the test, your body will pass the air that was put into your colon.

Children may be given medicine to make them sleep lightly (sedated) for this procedure.

Why the Test is Performed

Your provider may recommend this test to look for the cause of:

This test can also be used to:

Normal Results

A normal test result will show no problems with the color, texture, and size of the lining of the sigmoid colon, rectal mucosa, rectum, and anus.

What Abnormal Results Mean

Abnormal results can indicate:

Risks

There is a slight risk of bowel perforation (tearing a hole) and bleeding at the biopsy sites. The overall risk is very small.

Related Information

Crohn disease
Intestinal obstruction and Ileus
Colon and rectal cancer
Diverticulitis
Hemorrhoids
Anorectal abscess
Colorectal polyps
Proctitis

References

Pasricha PJ. Gastrointestinal endoscopy. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 134.

Rex DK, Boland CR, Dominitz JA, et al. Colorectal cancer screening: recommendations for physicians and patients from the U.S. Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. Am J Gastroenterol. 2017;112(7):1016-1030. PMID: 28555630 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28555630.

Vargo JJ. Preparation for and complications of GI endoscopy. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 41.

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Review Date: 6/21/2018  

Reviewed By: Michael M. Phillips, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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