Biopsy - bladder
Bladder biopsy is a procedure in which small pieces of tissue are removed from the bladder. The tissue is tested under a microscope.
A bladder biopsy can be done as part of a cystoscopy. Cystoscopy is a procedure that is done to see the inside of the bladder using a thin lighted tube called a cystoscope. A small piece of tissue or the entire abnormal area is removed. The tissue is sent to the lab to be tested if:
You must sign an informed consent form before you have a bladder biopsy. In most cases, you are asked to urinate just before the procedure. You may also be asked to take an antibiotic before the procedure.
For infants and children, the preparation you can provide for this test depends on your child's age, previous experiences, and level of trust. For general information regarding how you can prepare your child, see the following topics:
You may have a slight discomfort as the cystoscope is passed through your urethra into your bladder. You will feel discomfort that is similar to a strong urge to urinate when the fluid has filled your bladder.
You may feel a pinch during the biopsy. There may be a burning sensation when the blood vessels are sealed to stop bleeding (cauterized).
After the cystoscope is removed, your urethra may be sore. You may feel a burning sensation during urination for a day or two. There may be blood in the urine. In most cases, this will go away on its own.
In some cases, the biopsy needs to be taken from a large area. In that case, you may need general anesthesia or sedation before the procedure.
This test is most often done to check for cancer of the bladder or urethra.
The presence of cancer cells indicates bladder cancer. The type of cancer can be determined from the biopsy sample.
Other abnormalities may include:
There is some risk for urinary tract infection.
There is a slight risk for excessive bleeding. There may be a rupture of the bladder wall with the cystoscope or during biopsy.
There is also a risk that the biopsy will fail to detect a serious condition.
You will likely have a small amount of blood in your urine shortly after this procedure. If the bleeding continues after you urinate, contact your health care provider.
Also contact your provider if:
Bent AE, Cundiff GW. Cystourethroscopy. In: Baggish MS, Karram MM, eds. Atlas of Pelvic Anatomy and Gynecologic Surgery. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 122.
Duty BD, Conlin MJ. Principles of urologic endoscopy. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 7.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Cystoscopy and ureteroscopy. www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/diagnostic-tests/cystoscopy-ureteroscopy. Updated June 2015. Accessed June 9, 2018.
Smith TG, Coburn M. Urologic surgery. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 72.BACK TO TOP
Review Date: 5/31/2018
Reviewed By: Sovrin M. Shah, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Urology, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- 2019 A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.