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Tooth formation - delayed or absent

Delayed or absent tooth formation; Teeth - delayed or absent formation; Oligodontia; Anodontia

 

When a person's teeth grow in, they may be delayed or not occur at all.

Considerations

 

The age at which a tooth comes in varies. Most infants get their first tooth between 4 and 8 months, but it may be earlier or later.

Sometimes, children or adults are missing teeth they never developed. Cosmetic or orthodontic dentistry can correct this problem.

 

Causes

 

Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, when they grow in, or tooth absence. Delayed or absent tooth formation can result from many different conditions, including:

  • Apert syndrome
  • Cleidocranial dysostosis
  • Down syndrome
  • Ectodermal dysplasia
  • Ellis-van Creveld syndrome
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Incontinentia pigmenti achromians
  • Progeria

 

When to Contact a Medical Professional

 

Talk to your health care provider if your child has not developed any teeth by 9 months of age.

 

What to Expect at Your Office Visit

 

The provider will perform a physical exam. This will include a detailed look at your child's mouth and gums. You will be asked questions such as:

  • In what order did the teeth emerge?
  • At what age did other family members develop teeth?
  • Are any other family members missing teeth that never "came in"?
  • What other symptoms are present?

An infant with delayed or absent tooth formation may have other symptoms and signs that indicate a specific medical condition.

Medical tests are not often needed. Most of the time, delayed tooth formation is normal. Dental x-rays may be done.

 

 

References

Dean JA, Turner EG. Eruption of the teeth: local, systemic, and congenital factors that influence the process. In: Dean JA, ed. McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent. 10th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:chap 19.

Tinanoff N. Development and developmental anomalies of the teeth. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 307.

Text only

 
  • Tooth anatomy

    Tooth anatomy - illustration

    The structure of the tooth includes dentin, pulp and other tissues, blood vessels and nerves imbedded in the bony jaw. Above the gum line, the tooth is protected by the hard enamel covering.

    Tooth anatomy

    illustration

  • Development of baby teeth

    Development of baby teeth - illustration

    Both baby teeth (deciduous or milk teeth) and permanent teeth have fairly well-defined times of eruption. The ages listed are the normal ages that a baby tooth emerges. Upper central incisors and upper lateral incisors erupt by 8 to 10 months. Upper canines (cuspids) erupt by 16 to 20 months. Upper first molars erupt by 15 to 21 months. Upper second molars erupt by 20 to 24 months. Lower central incisors erupt by 6 to 9 months. Lower lateral incisors erupt by 15 to 21 months. Lower canines (cuspids) erupt by 15 to 21 months. Lower first molars erupt by 15 to 21 months. Lower second molars erupt by 20 to 24 months.

    Development of baby teeth

    illustration

  • Development of permanent teeth

    Development of permanent teeth - illustration

    Both baby and permanent teeth have fairly well-defined times of eruption. The ages listed are the typical ages that an adult tooth has fully emerged. Upper and lower central incisors erupt by the 7th year. Upper and lower lateral incisors erupt by the 8th year. Upper and lower canines (cuspids) erupt by 11th to 12th year. Upper and lower first premolars (bicuspids) erupt by the 9th year. Upper and lower second premolars (bicuspids) erupt by the 10th year. Upper and lower first molars erupt by the 6th year. Upper and lower second molars erupt by the 12th to 13th year. Upper and lower third molars erupt by the 17th to 25th year.

    Development of permanent teeth

    illustration

    • Tooth anatomy

      Tooth anatomy - illustration

      The structure of the tooth includes dentin, pulp and other tissues, blood vessels and nerves imbedded in the bony jaw. Above the gum line, the tooth is protected by the hard enamel covering.

      Tooth anatomy

      illustration

    • Development of baby teeth

      Development of baby teeth - illustration

      Both baby teeth (deciduous or milk teeth) and permanent teeth have fairly well-defined times of eruption. The ages listed are the normal ages that a baby tooth emerges. Upper central incisors and upper lateral incisors erupt by 8 to 10 months. Upper canines (cuspids) erupt by 16 to 20 months. Upper first molars erupt by 15 to 21 months. Upper second molars erupt by 20 to 24 months. Lower central incisors erupt by 6 to 9 months. Lower lateral incisors erupt by 15 to 21 months. Lower canines (cuspids) erupt by 15 to 21 months. Lower first molars erupt by 15 to 21 months. Lower second molars erupt by 20 to 24 months.

      Development of baby teeth

      illustration

    • Development of permanent teeth

      Development of permanent teeth - illustration

      Both baby and permanent teeth have fairly well-defined times of eruption. The ages listed are the typical ages that an adult tooth has fully emerged. Upper and lower central incisors erupt by the 7th year. Upper and lower lateral incisors erupt by the 8th year. Upper and lower canines (cuspids) erupt by 11th to 12th year. Upper and lower first premolars (bicuspids) erupt by the 9th year. Upper and lower second premolars (bicuspids) erupt by the 10th year. Upper and lower first molars erupt by the 6th year. Upper and lower second molars erupt by the 12th to 13th year. Upper and lower third molars erupt by the 17th to 25th year.

      Development of permanent teeth

      illustration

    A Closer Look

     

      Self Care

       

        Tests for Tooth formation - delayed or absent

         
           

          Review Date: 2/5/2018

          Reviewed By: Ilona Fotek, DMD, MS, Dental Healing Arts, Jupiter, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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