SpasticityMuscle stiffness; Hypertonia
Spasticity is stiff or rigid muscles. It may also be called unusual tightness or increased muscle tone. Reflexes (for example, a knee-jerk reflex) are stronger or exaggerated. The condition can interfere with walking, movement, speech, and many other activities of daily living.
Spasticity is often caused by damage to the part of the brain that is involved in movements under your control. It may also occur from damage to the nerves that go from the brain to the spinal cord.
Symptoms of spasticity include:
- Abnormal posture
- Carrying the shoulder, arm, wrist, and finger at an abnormal angle because of muscle tightness
- Exaggerated deep tendon reflexes (the knee-jerk or other reflexes)
- Repetitive jerky motions (clonus), especially when you are touched or moved
- Scissoring (crossing of the legs as the tips of scissors would close)
- Pain or deformity of the affected area of the body
Spasticity may also affect speech. Severe, long-term spasticity may lead to contracture of muscles. This can reduce range of motion or leave the joints bent.
A contracture develops when the normally stretchy (elastic) tissues are replaced by nonstretchy (inelastic) fiber-like tissue. This tissue makes it ...
Spasticity may be caused by any of the following:
- Adrenoleukodystrophy (disorder that disrupt the breakdown of certain fats)
- Brain damage caused by lack of oxygen, as can occur in near drowning or near suffocation
- Cerebral palsy (group of disorders that can involve brain and nervous system functions)
- Head injury
- Multiple sclerosis
- Neurodegenerative illness (illnesses that damage the brain and nervous system over time)
- Phenylketonuria (disorder in which the body can't break down the amino acid phenylalanine)
- Spinal cord injury
This list does not include all conditions that can cause spasticity.
Exercise, including muscle stretching, can help make symptoms less severe. Physical therapy is also helpful.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Contact your health care provider if:
- The spasticity gets worse
- You notice deformity of the affected areas
What to Expect at Your Office Visit
Your doctor will perform a physical exam and ask about your symptoms, including:
- When was it first noticed?
- How long has it lasted?
- Is it always present?
- How severe is it?
- Which muscles are affected?
- What makes it better?
- What makes it worse?
- What other symptoms are present?
After determining the cause of your spasticity, the doctor may refer you to a physical therapist. Physical therapy involves different exercises, including muscle stretching and strengthening exercises. Physical therapy exercises can be taught to parents who can then help their child do them at home.
Other treatments may include:
- Medicines to treat spasticity. These need to be taken as instructed.
- Botulinum toxin that can be injected into the spastic muscles.
- In rare cases, a pump used to directly deliver medicine into the spinal fluid and nervous system.
- Sometimes surgery to release the tendon or to cut the nerve-muscle pathway.
Griggs RC, Jozefowicz RF, Aminoff MJ. Approach to the patient with neurologic disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 396.
McGee S. Examination of the motor system: approach to weakness. In: McGee S, ed. Evidence-Based Physical Diagnosis. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 61.
Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system - illustration
The central nervous system is comprised of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system includes all peripheral nerves.
Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
Review Date: 3/12/2019
Reviewed By: Alireza Minagar, MD, MBA, Professor, Department of Neurology, LSU Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.