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Gum biopsy

Biopsy - gingiva (gums)

 

A gum biopsy is a surgery in which a small piece of gingival (gum) tissue is removed and examined.

How the Test is Performed

 

A painkiller is sprayed into the mouth in the area of the abnormal gum tissue. You may also have an injection of numbing medicine. A small piece of gum tissue is removed and checked for problems in the lab. Sometimes stitches are used to close the opening created for the biopsy.

 

How to Prepare for the Test

 

You may be told not to eat for a few hours before the biopsy.

 

How the Test will Feel

 

The painkiller put in your mouth should numb the area during the procedure. You may feel some tugging or pressure. If there is bleeding, the blood vessels may be sealed off with an electric current or laser. This is called electrocauterization. After the numbness wears off, the area may be sore for a few days.

 

Why the Test is Performed

 

This test is done to look for the cause of abnormal gum tissue.

 

Normal Results

 

This test is only done when gum tissue looks abnormal.

 

What Abnormal Results Mean

 

Abnormal results may indicate:

  • Amyloid
  • Noncancerous mouth sores (the specific cause can be determined in many cases)
  • Oral cancer (for example, squamous cell carcinoma)

 

Risks

 

Risks for this procedure include:

  • Bleeding from the biopsy site
  • Infection of the gums
  • Soreness

 

Considerations

 

Avoid brushing the area where the biopsy was performed for 1 week.

 

 

References

Ellis E, Huber MA. Principles of differential diagnosis and biopsy. In: Hupp JR, Ellis E, Tucker MR, eds. Contemporary Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 22.

Wein RO, Weber RS. Malignant neoplasms of the oral cavity. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 93.

Text only

 
  • Gum biopsy

    Gum biopsy - illustration

    Gum biopsy is a diagnostic procedure in which a small piece of gingival (gum) tissue is removed for examination. The test is performed when examination of the mouth reveals abnormal-appearing gum tissue.

    Gum biopsy

    illustration

  • Tooth anatomy

    Tooth anatomy - illustration

    The structure of the tooth includes dentin, pulp and other tissues, blood vessels and nerves imbedded in the bony jaw. Above the gum line, the tooth is protected by the hard enamel covering.

    Tooth anatomy

    illustration

    • Gum biopsy

      Gum biopsy - illustration

      Gum biopsy is a diagnostic procedure in which a small piece of gingival (gum) tissue is removed for examination. The test is performed when examination of the mouth reveals abnormal-appearing gum tissue.

      Gum biopsy

      illustration

    • Tooth anatomy

      Tooth anatomy - illustration

      The structure of the tooth includes dentin, pulp and other tissues, blood vessels and nerves imbedded in the bony jaw. Above the gum line, the tooth is protected by the hard enamel covering.

      Tooth anatomy

      illustration

    A Closer Look

     

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        Self Care

         

          Tests for Gum biopsy

           
           

          Review Date: 2/27/2019

          Reviewed By: Josef Shargorodsky, MD, MPH, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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