Birth control options for women

An in-depth report on the birth control options available to women.

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References

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 112: Emergency contraception. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;115(5):1100-1109. PMID: 20410799 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20410799.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 121: Long-acting reversible contraception: Implants and intrauterine devices. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;118(1):184-196. PMID: 21691183 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21691183.

Baldwin MK, Edelman AB, Lim JY, Nichols MD, Bednarek PH, Jensen JT. Intrauterine device placement at 3 versus 6 weeks postpartum: a randomized trial. Contraception. 2016;93(4):356-363. PMID: 26686914 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26686914.

Brache V, Cochon L, Deniaud M, Croxatto HB. Ulipristal acetate prevents ovulation more effectively than levonorgestrel: analysis of pooled data from three randomized trials of emergency contraception regimens. Contraception. 2013;88(5):611-618. PMID: 23809278 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23809278.

Bushnell C, McCullough LD, Awad IA, et al. Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in women: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2014;45(5):1545-1588. PMID: 24503673 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24503673.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Update to CDC's U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010: revised recommendations for the use of contraceptive methods during the postpartum period. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60(26):878-883. PMID: 21734635 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21734635.

Cleland K, Zhu H, Goldstuck N, Cheng L, Trussell J. The efficacy of intrauterine devices for emergency contraception: a systematic review of 35 years of experience. Hum Reprod. 2012;27(7):1994-2000. PMID: 22570193 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22570193.

Committee On Adolescence. Emergency contraception. Pediatrics. 2012;130(6):1174-1182. PMID: 23184108 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23184108.

Committee on Adolescent Health Care Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Working Group, The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Committee opinion no. 539: adolescents and long-acting reversible contraception: implants and intrauterine devices. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;120(4):983-988. PMID: 22996129 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22996129.

Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2013: adapted from the World Health Organization selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use, 2nd edition. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2013;62(RR-05):1-60. PMID: 23784109 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23784109.

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Isley MM, Katz VL. Postpartum care and long-term health considerations. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et al, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 23.

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Jick SS, Hernandez RK. Risk of non-fatal venous thromboembolism in women using oral contraceptives containing drospirenone compared with women using oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel: case-control study using United States claims data. BMJ. 2011;342:d2151. PMID: 21511805 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21511805.

Lopez LM, Bernholc A, Chen M, et al. Hormonal contraceptives for contraception in overweight or obese women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;(8):CD008452. PMID: 27537097 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27537097.

Lopez LM, Grimes DA, Gallo MF, Stockton LL, Schulz KF. Skin patch and vaginal ring versus combined oral contraceptives for contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(4):CD003552. PMID: 23633314 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23633314.

Madden T, McNicholas C, Zhao Q, Secura GM, Eisenberg DL, Peipert JF. Association of age and parity with intrauterine device expulsion. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;124(4):718-726. PMID: 25198262 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25198262.

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Secura GM, Madden T, McNicholas C, et al. Provision of no-cost, long-acting contraception and teenage pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(14):1316-1323. PMID 25271604 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25271604.

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Trenor CC 3rd, Chung RJ, Michelson AD, et al. Hormonal contraception and thrombotic risk: a multidisciplinary approach. Pediatrics. 2011;127(2):347-357. PMID: 21199853 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21199853.

Winner B, Peipert JF, Zhao Q, et al. Effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraception. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(21):1998-2007. PMID: 22621627 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22621627.

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Review Date: 3/14/2017  

Reviewed By: John D. Jacobson, MD, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda Center for Fertility, Loma Linda, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. 12-19-18: Editorial update.

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